Bronchial asthma is a disease caused by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli. The result is paroxysmal constriction of the bronchial airways. Bronchial asthma is the more correct name for the common form of asthma. The term "bronchial" is used to differentiate it from "cardiac" asthma which is a separate condition that is caused by heart failure. Although the two types of asthma have similar symptoms, including wheezing and shortness of breath, they have quite different causes.
Bronchial asthma is a disease of the lungs in which an obstructive ventilation disturbance of the respiratory passages evokes a feeling of shortness of breath. The cause is sharply elevated resistance to airflow in the airways. Despite its most strenuous efforts, the respiratory musculature is unable to provide sufficient gas exchange. The result is a characteristic asthma attack, with spasms of the bronchial musculature, edematous swelling of the bronchial wall and increased mucus secretion. Risk factors include self or family history of eczemas, allergies or family history of asthma.